What is fractional distillation?

A fractional distillation is a process of separating chemicals or substances on the basis of their boiling point. This is done by keeping the temperature of required product about 25° less than its boiling point. As such other chemicals are  removed and we obtain required chemical.

Explain fractional distillation of crude oil?

Why crude oil needs fractional distillation?

A crude oil is mixture of many components. These components are aught to be separated in order to make it fit for consumption. This is done in a fractional distillation chamber. It is a long verticle chamber with various sections. The Crude oil is heated just below the fractional column it starts rising. It enters the column through the ports or holes at the lower end of the Column. The column is hotter at the lower section and relatively cooler at the upper section. When the substance starts rising in the column and reaches a height where the temperature of the column is equal to the boiling point of substance, the substance condenses.

The condensed product is send to condensor where it is further cooled down. The cooled product is then send to other chemical industries for processing as per use.

This is how fractional distillation of crude oil is conducted.
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